This is only a general guide to the species of fish Fred
Hallam Ltd may stock and does not indicate the origin, or method of
production, of fish available in the shop. Wherever possible, we try to stock
fish from sustainable sources
Bass (Sea Bass)
Notes: Sea Bass belongs to a family of
spiny-finned fish called Moronidae, which are closely related to groupers.
Bass breed mostly in April, in British coastal and offshore waters. It is a
long-lived species, which may exceed 25 years of age, and can achieve a
length of up to 1m with a weight of 12 kg. Male bass mature at 31-35 cm (aged
3-6 years) and females mature at 40-45 cm (aged 5-8 years). Once mature bass
may migrate within UK
coastal waters and occasionally further offshore.
Stocks: Bass is farmed, mainly in Greece, which accounts for 50% of European
bass stocks, with other key producers in Spain,
France and Italy. Farmed bass produce much smaller fish.
Notes: Gilthead Bream can grow to lengths
of 70 cm and live for as long as 11 years. It is a sedentary species found in
depths of up to 150m.
Stocks: Farmed mainly in Greece, but also Spain,
France and Italy,
in open sea pens and fed a diet reliant on wild fish capture. Look out for
organically farmed sea bream which are farmed with lower stocking densities
and fed more sustainable feeds.
Notes: Brill belongs to a small family of
left-eyed flatfish (they lie on their right side and both eyes are on the
left). They can attain a length of 75cm, but usually no more than 55cm, and a
weight of around 2.5kgs for females (who are the larger).
Stocks: Brill is mainly taken as by-catch
in beam trawl fisheries in the North Sea. A
considerable proportion of the catch is immature and the stock over-exploited.
Notes: Cat shark belongs to one of the
largest families of sharks, the dogfishes or Scyliorhinidae. Mating occurs
from late summer to November, after which females move to spawning grounds in
shallower water. The shark embryos are enclosed in cases (called mermaids'
purses) whilst they develop and mature (usually around June/July). Females
and males mature from 54 to 60 cm in length at around 5 years of age. Cat
sharks can grow up to 1m in length, maximum age is unknown. They are also
marketed as dogfish.
Stocks: Cat sharks are one of the few
shark species whose numbers appear to be stable at present although they’re
vulnerable to over-exploitation as they produce few young.
Notes: Cod belongs to a family of fish
known as gadoids. It is a cold-temperate demersal (bottom-dwelling) species.
In the North Sea, cod mature at 4-5 years at
a length of about 50cms and can live up to 60 years.
Stocks: All North East Atlantic cod stocks
are assessed as being overfished; however stocks in the North Sea, Irish Sea,
West of Scotland, eastern Channel, eastern Baltic, Greenland, Skaggerak, Kattegat and Norwegian coast are the most heavily
depleted. North East Arctic (Barents and Norwegian Sea),
Icelandic and Faroese cod stock are healthier.
Notes: North Pacific cod is a moderately
fast growing, short-lived species compared to other American demersal fish.
Their maximum estimated age is about 19 years. Spawning generally occurs from
January to April.
Stocks: The Pacific cod fishery is well
managed with healthy stocks
Notes: Coley (or Saithe) belongs to the
same family as cod and haddock. Coley usually enters coastal waters in spring
and returns to deeper water in winter. They spawn from January to March at
about 200m depth along the Northern Shelf edge and the western edge of the
Norwegian deeps. Saithe can grow up to 130cm and reach ages of more than 25
Stocks: The Northeast Arctic (Barents and
Norwegian Sea) Saithe stock and the combined Saithe stock in the North Sea,
Skaggerak, West of Scotland and Rockall is currently harvested sustainably.
Notes: Dab is a right-eyed flatfish (both
eyes are on the right side of the body) related to the plaice, flounder and
sole. It can reach a length of about 40cm and an age of 10-12 years. Spawns
in January to August, earliest off Brittany
and southern England,
later in the North Sea (April to June) and in the Barents
Sea (June-July). In the Baltic Sea
they spawn in April-August.
Stocks: Choose dab caught by seine
netting, a method of fishing which causes less damage to seabed and catch
produces better quality fish than that taken in a demersal trawl. Currently
Notes: Dogfish belong to the same family
as sharks and rays. They give birth to live young. Gestation or pregnancy
lasts between 18 and 22 months.
Stocks: The North East Atlantic stock is
now considered to be depleted and may be in danger of collapse.
Notes: Dolphin fish or mahi mahi (a
Hawaiian word meaning strong-strong) live near the surface in warm, tropical
and sub-tropical waters worldwide. Mahi Mahi grow and mature quickly, having
a short life span of 3-4 years. They can reach lengths of over 1m in little
more than a year and have a maximum size of over 2m and 40 kg.
Stocks: Mahi Mahi is a short-lived species
and can sustain fishing provided stocks are managed responsibly. It is often
taken as by-catch in long line fisheries for tuna.
Notes: Eels are catadromous, meaning that
they spawn in the sea and return to freshwater streams to grow. The European
eel breeds in mid-Atlantic in the Sargasso Sea.
Larvae are carried by the Gulf Stream to the continental shelf of Europe in about 1 year where they metamorphose into
colourless elvers or glass eels. Elvers then start to move up rivers, in the UK in
February and April. The freshwater stage is a feeding and growing phase. At
this stage they are known as yellow eels. As they mature and grow they change
into silver eels.
Eels that grow up in freshwater generally become females,
while the ones in brackish water become males or females. Males change into
silver eels when 6-12 years old (30-48 cm), the females when 10-30 years old
(50-130 cm). As they mature sexually they descend the river or migrate to the
sea. If silver eels are prevented from returning to the sea, they start to
feed again and can live up to 50 years. It is thought that they use the
earth’s magnetic field to find their way to the Sargasso
Sea to spawn.
Stocks: There is one single European eel
stock. This is severely depleted and at a historical minimum which continues
to decline. Eels are exploited in all life stages and those that are fished
do not have the chance to breed. Eels spawn only once in their lifetime and
it is almost certain they die after spawning. Eels are also farmed but rely
on juveniles from wild stocks.
Notes: Escolar or snake mackerels, found
in tropical and sub-tropical waters beyond the continental shelf. Escolar can
grow up to 100cm.
Stocks: There is only a minor commercial
fishery for escolar and they are generally taken as by-catch in long line
fisheries for tuna. No information is available on their status.
Notes: A widespread European fish found
in both fresh and marine waters in the summer. Like plaice they spend most of the day
buried in the sand, but become very active at night and move into shallower
water to feed. Flounders attain a length of 50-60 cms and can live up to 15
Stocks: There are no targeted fisheries for flounder; they are taken as
by-catch in trawl nets. In Cornwall
and North Western & North Wales Sea Fisheries Districts landing flounder
below 25 cm is prohibited.
Notes: Gurnards belong to a group of fish
known collectively as Trigliadae (sea robins). Although an offshore species,
grey gurnard is occasionally found in shallow water. The maximum life span
rarely exceeds 6 years and they have a strong seasonal migration throughout
the North Sea. Gurnards are able to grunt or
growl by use of muscles associated with the swim bladder, and this is
believed to aid in keeping schools together.
Stocks: Grey gurnard are taken as by-catch
in trawl fisheries in deeper offshore waters. Thought to be sustainable.
Notes: Haddock is a cold-temperate
migratory fish, found in inshore shallow waters in summer and in deep water
in winter. Smaller than cod, it can attain a length of 70-100cms and can live
for more than 20 years.
Stocks: Haddock from stocks West of
Scotland and in the combined areas of the North Sea,
Kattegat & Skaggerak are at healthy or sustainable levels and being
fished sustainably. Whilst at sustainable levels, fishing effort is too high
on Icelandic and Faroese stocks. The haddock stock in the North East Arctic
(Barents and Norwegian Sea) is also healthy.
hake belong to a group of fish known as Merluccidae. It is found on the
continental shelf and in waters to depths over 1000m. There is only one
species found in European seas.
Stocks: The Cape
hake fishery was recently certified by the Marine Stewardship Council as an
environmentally responsible fishery. There are two main stocks for European
hake - a northern and southern stock. The northern stock is harvested
sustainably, but the southern stock is depleted.
Notes: Halibut belong to a large family
(Pleuronectidae) of flatfishes which all have both eyes on the right side of
the body. The family is distributed in cool, temperate waters of the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans. The Atlantic halibut is the
largest of the 3 species. Atlantic halibut mature at a higher age than either
Greenland or Pacific halibut, and are
therefore more vulnerable to overfishing.
Stocks: Pacific halibut is less vulnerable
to overfishing than Atlantic or Greenland
halibut and fisheries are generally much better managed. Longline fisheries
for Pacific halibut in US waters off Alaska,
Washington and Oregon are certified as environmentally
responsible fisheries by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). The long line
fishery for Pacific halibut in Pacific waters off British
is currently undergoing assessment by the MSC as an environmentally
Notes: Herring belongs to the same family
of fish (clupeids) as sprat and pilchard. At least one population in UK waters
spawns in any one month of the year. Herring have an important role in the
marine ecosystem as a transformer of plankton at the bottom of the food chain
to higher feeding levels e.g. for cod, seabirds and marine mammals.
Stocks: The largest single fishery is for
Atlantic herring which is fished throughout much of the North
Atlantic. In European waters, herring is managed by a system of
quotas. Stocks are healthy and sustainable.
Notes: Hoki is a member of the hake
family Merluccididae, and is a deep-water fish found only in the southern
hemisphere. It can grow up to 120 cm and is reported to live to 25 years.
Stocks: Hoki trawling in New Zealand can cause by-catch of
fur seals and a formal programme to monitor and control this is in force.
Notes: John Dory usually lives a solitary
life or is found in small schools in inshore waters. Spawns in June-August
off the coasts of southern England,
earlier in the Mediterranean.
Stocks: Dory is generally taken as
by-catch in trawls and is unregulated.
Notes: Mackerel is a fast swimming
species belonging to a group of fish known as the scombrid family, which are
related to the tuna.
Notes: Black marlin belong to a group of
fish collectively known as billfish, all having a modified jaw shaped like a
bill or spear. Black marlin is found in tropical and sub-tropical waters of
the Indian and Pacific
Oceans. They can reach
a length of about 5m and weight of 750 kg. Spawning occurs at different times
of year depending on the area. In Australian waters spawning occurs between
October and March, whilst in the waters off China it occurs between May and
June. Blue marlin is migratory and found throughout tropical and temperate
waters worldwide. Migrations they are usually solitary, large predators with
an average weight of 100-175 kgs. Young marlin is one of, if not the, fastest
growing of all bony fish.
Stocks: Atlantic blue marlin is mainly
landed as by-catch in long line fisheries for tuna and swordfish. Atlantic
blue marlin is overfished. And is not predicted to recover if current levels
of mortality continue.
Notes: Also called Cape
monk or Devil Anglerfish, it is distributed throughout the South East
Atlantic. Found on the deeper continental shelf and upper slope from depths
of about 150-400 m. attains a maximum length of 100 cm, more commonly 40-50
cm. It is reported to live for 11 years and matures at around 4 years at 40
Stocks: No information available at
Notes: Grey mullet belong to a large
family - which comprises some 80 species - of marine fish known as Muglidae
and is a common inhabitant of marine coastal waters in Europe.
The thick-lipped grey mullet is one of three species which occur in northern
European waters. It spawns in the Channel and in Irish waters in July-August.
Stocks: Grey mullet is a common inhabitant
of most if not all northern European coastal waters. Little information
available on abundance due to lack of scientific data.
Notes: Red mullet is a member of the
Mullidae family. Distributed throughout the world in tropical and warm
temperate seas, it is one of two species found in the Mediterranean
(the other being Mullus barbatus). It is also found as far north as Britain and Ireland in summer. It has
distinctive barbels - sensory organs - with which it detects food in the sea
bed. This is the reason for its alternative name - goat fish. Spawns in
May-July in the Channel area.
Stocks: Taken as by-catch and in mixed
trawl fisheries. Red mullet subject to
high fishing pressure in Mediterranean fisheries.
Notes: Pilchard is a pelagic shoaling
fish and a member of the herring family. It is widely distributed in European
seas reaching the northward limit of its range in the vicinity of the British Isles. Young pilchard is often referred to as sardine.
Stocks: Choose pilchard - sold as Cornish
sardines - caught in coastal waters off using traditional drift or ring nets.
Notes: Distributed throughout the North
East Atlantic, Pollack is a warm, temperate species belonging to the cod
Stocks: Pollack is taken as by-catch in
directed trawl fisheries for cod and by hook and line. The best choice to
make in terms of sustainability is line-caught Pollack.
Notes: Plaice is a bottom-dwelling
flatfish. North Sea plaice reach between 35
and 45 cm in their 6th year. It is a long-lived species with a maximum
reported age of 50 years.
Stocks: Plaice is subject to high fishing
pressure. Stocks in the Celtic Sea, Western Channel, SW
Ireland and West of Ireland are in decline and substantial
reductions in fishing effort are required to achieve sustainable stock
levels. The Irish Sea stock is currently the
only stock classified as healthy and harvested sustainably.
Notes: Both Atlantic
and Pacific salmon are diadromous, i.e. they move during their life cycle
between fresh and marine waters. Salmon spawn in rivers in fresh water. Eggs
are laid in nests called redds. Pacific salmon, which are shorter lived and
much more prolific breeders than Atlantic salmon, always die after spawning.
Atlantic salmon may survive to spawn a 2nd or 3rd time.
Stocks: Pacific salmon are a shorter lived
species and much more prolific breeders than Atlantic salmon. Stocks of wild
Atlantic salmon are overfished and are listed as a threatened and declining species.
Atlantic salmon is widely farmed. There are a number of environmental issues
related to fish farming. All 5 species of Pacific salmon caught in Alaskan
waters are from fisheries certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)
as environmentally responsible fisheries. Choose wild caught Pacific salmon from MSC certified fisheries or
farmed Atlantic salmon which has been certified by the Soil Association as
organic, and/or by the RSPCA/SSPCA Freedom Foods scheme ensuring that high
environmental and welfare standards have been met.
Notes: Common skates belong to the
Rajidae family which includes skates and rays. Females can reach lengths of
about 280 cm and males about 200 cm. The species can live for 50 years.
Stocks: The common skate belies its name
as it is becoming very rare in UK shallow seas and in European
waters. Common skate is assessed as Critically Endangered by IUCN -World
Notes: The red snapper is a tropical
species distributed across the Indian and Pacific oceans from the Gulf of Oman
to south-east Asia.
Stocks: The red snapper caught off the
north Western Australian coast is a fast growing species whose stock levels
are currently healthy. Research is
continuing to improve the management of the trawl fishery.
Notes: Sole is a right-eyed flatfish
(eyes on the right hand side of the body) and belongs to the family of
flatfishes known as Soleidae. It spawns in spring and early summer in shallow
coastal water: from April to June in the southern North Sea; from May-June
off the coast of Ireland
and southern England; and
as early as February in the Mediterranean.
Stocks: North Sea Dover or common sole stock is classified as
healthy and harvested sustainably. Stocks in areas Skaggerak and Kattegat,
Eastern Channel and Celtic
Sea are also healthy
but level of fishing pressure is too high or unknown. Stocks in the Western
Channel and Biscay are harvested
unsustainably. Dover sole from the Hastings Fleet trammel
net fishery in the Eastern Channel is certified as an environmentally responsible
fishery by the Marine Stewardship Council.
Notes: Lemon sole is a widely distributed
flatfish in northern European waters.
Stocks: The fishery for lemon sole is
largely unregulated. Taken as by-catch in trawl fisheries. Only stocks in
Norwegian and North
Seas are subject to
mixed quota restrictions. Choose fish landed in Cornwall where a minimum landing size is
Notes: Swordfish is the only member of
the family Xiphiidae. It is a migratory species, moving towards cold waters
in summer to feed and returning to warmer waters to spawn. In the Atlantic
spawning takes place in spring in the southern Sargasso Sea, in spring and
summer in the Pacific and June-August in the Mediterranean. They can attain a maximum size of 4.5m and
a weight of 650 kg. Most swordfish over 140 kg are female.
Stocks: Swordfish has low resilience to
high fishing pressure. Many stocks are unmanaged and/or overfished and/or
include large catches of immature swordfish and by-catch of non-target
species including endangered marine turtles.
Notes: Tilapia is a generic name used to
describe groups of fish called cichlids that are native to Africa.
Tilapia is hardy, freshwater fish that tolerate a wide range of water
conditions. They inhabit warm ponds, lakes and streams, and reproduce in
fresh and brackish water.
Stocks: Tilapia can be farmed in a number
of ways, which varies according to country and size of production.
Notes: Found in the Pacific, South
Atlantic, East Atlantic and Indian Oceans, tuna belong to the family
Scombridae. They are large, oceanic fish and are migratory, some making
trans-oceanic journeys. Tuna form mixed schools e.g. albacore, skipjack and
bluefin. can reach ages of 10-25 years depending on species.
Stocks: Albacore Skipjack and yellowfin
from the Pacific and Atlantic and skipjack
from the Indian oceans are currently being fished at sustainable levels.
Notes: Turbot belongs to a small family of
left-eyed flatfish (both eyes on the left of the body), known collectively as
the family Scophthalmidae. This family of fish is confined to the North Atlantic basin. For some reason males are
generally more abundant than females. Turbot can attain a length of 1m and a
weight of 25 kg. Females are larger than males at any given age.
Stocks: North Sea
stocks are over-exploited. Throughout
Cornwall Sea Fisheries District it is prohibited to land turbot below 30cms.
Notes: Whiting is a member of the gadoid
family the same as cod and haddock.
Stocks: Whiting are a low value species
and often discarded in large quantities. The English
Channel stock is currently the only stock assessed by ICES as
having full reproductive capacity or healthy.
For More Information On Our Fresh Fish, Fruit & Vegetables
Please Call Us On: 01159 254 766