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Shellfish Fayre, 1st Saturday Of Every Month

Greengrocers, Fishmonger, Wholesale & Retail Beeston - Fish Guide

 

This is only a general guide to the species of fish Fred Hallam Ltd may stock and does not indicate the origin, or method of production, of fish available in the shop. Wherever possible, we try to stock fish from sustainable sources

 

Bass (Sea Bass)Bass (Sea Bass)

Notes: Sea Bass belongs to a family of spiny-finned fish called Moronidae, which are closely related to groupers. Bass breed mostly in April, in British coastal and offshore waters. It is a long-lived species, which may exceed 25 years of age, and can achieve a length of up to 1m with a weight of 12 kg. Male bass mature at 31-35 cm (aged 3-6 years) and females mature at 40-45 cm (aged 5-8 years). Once mature bass may migrate within UK coastal waters and occasionally further offshore.

 

Stocks: Bass is farmed, mainly in Greece, which accounts for 50% of European bass stocks, with other key producers in Spain, France and Italy. Farmed bass produce much smaller fish.

 

Bream (Gilthead)Bream (Gilthead)

Notes: Gilthead Bream can grow to lengths of 70 cm and live for as long as 11 years. It is a sedentary species found in depths of up to 150m.

 

Stocks: Farmed mainly in Greece, but also Spain, France and Italy, in open sea pens and fed a diet reliant on wild fish capture. Look out for organically farmed sea bream which are farmed with lower stocking densities and fed more sustainable feeds.

 

BrillBrill

Notes: Brill belongs to a small family of left-eyed flatfish (they lie on their right side and both eyes are on the left). They can attain a length of 75cm, but usually no more than 55cm, and a weight of around 2.5kgs for females (who are the larger).

 

Stocks: Brill is mainly taken as by-catch in beam trawl fisheries in the North Sea. A considerable proportion of the catch is immature and the stock over-exploited.

 

Cat Shark (Lesser-spotted dogfish)Cat Shark (Lesser-spotted dogfish)

Notes: Cat shark belongs to one of the largest families of sharks, the dogfishes or Scyliorhinidae. Mating occurs from late summer to November, after which females move to spawning grounds in shallower water. The shark embryos are enclosed in cases (called mermaids' purses) whilst they develop and mature (usually around June/July). Females and males mature from 54 to 60 cm in length at around 5 years of age. Cat sharks can grow up to 1m in length, maximum age is unknown. They are also marketed as dogfish.

 

Stocks: Cat sharks are one of the few shark species whose numbers appear to be stable at present although they’re vulnerable to over-exploitation as they produce few young.

 

Cod (Atlantic) Cod (Atlantic)

Notes: Cod belongs to a family of fish known as gadoids. It is a cold-temperate demersal (bottom-dwelling) species. In the North Sea, cod mature at 4-5 years at a length of about 50cms and can live up to 60 years.

 

Stocks: All North East Atlantic cod stocks are assessed as being overfished; however stocks in the North Sea, Irish Sea, West of Scotland, eastern Channel, eastern Baltic, Greenland, Skaggerak, Kattegat and Norwegian coast are the most heavily depleted. North East Arctic (Barents and Norwegian Sea), Icelandic and Faroese cod stock are healthier. 

 

Cod (Pacific)Cod (Pacific)

Notes: North Pacific cod is a moderately fast growing, short-lived species compared to other American demersal fish. Their maximum estimated age is about 19 years. Spawning generally occurs from January to April.

 

Stocks: The Pacific cod fishery is well managed with healthy stocks

 

ColeyColey

Notes: Coley (or Saithe) belongs to the same family as cod and haddock. Coley usually enters coastal waters in spring and returns to deeper water in winter. They spawn from January to March at about 200m depth along the Northern Shelf edge and the western edge of the Norwegian deeps. Saithe can grow up to 130cm and reach ages of more than 25 years.

 

Stocks: The Northeast Arctic (Barents and Norwegian Sea) Saithe stock and the combined Saithe stock in the North Sea, Skaggerak, West of Scotland and Rockall is currently harvested sustainably.

 

DabDab

Notes: Dab is a right-eyed flatfish (both eyes are on the right side of the body) related to the plaice, flounder and sole. It can reach a length of about 40cm and an age of 10-12 years. Spawns in January to August, earliest off Brittany and southern England, later in the North Sea (April to June) and in the Barents Sea (June-July). In the Baltic Sea they spawn in April-August.

 

Stocks: Choose dab caught by seine netting, a method of fishing which causes less damage to seabed and catch produces better quality fish than that taken in a demersal trawl. Currently sustainable.

 

Dogfish (Rock salmon)Dogfish (Rock salmon)

Notes: Dogfish belong to the same family as sharks and rays. They give birth to live young. Gestation or pregnancy lasts between 18 and 22 months.

 

Stocks: The North East Atlantic stock is now considered to be depleted and may be in danger of collapse.

 

Dolphin fish/Dorado/Mahi MahiDolphin fish/Dorado/Mahi Mahi

Notes: Dolphin fish or mahi mahi (a Hawaiian word meaning strong-strong) live near the surface in warm, tropical and sub-tropical waters worldwide. Mahi Mahi grow and mature quickly, having a short life span of 3-4 years. They can reach lengths of over 1m in little more than a year and have a maximum size of over 2m and 40 kg.

 

Stocks: Mahi Mahi is a short-lived species and can sustain fishing provided stocks are managed responsibly. It is often taken as by-catch in long line fisheries for tuna.

 

Eel (European)Eel (European)

Notes: Eels are catadromous, meaning that they spawn in the sea and return to freshwater streams to grow. The European eel breeds in mid-Atlantic in the Sargasso Sea. Larvae are carried by the Gulf Stream to the continental shelf of Europe in about 1 year where they metamorphose into colourless elvers or glass eels. Elvers then start to move up rivers, in the UK in February and April. The freshwater stage is a feeding and growing phase. At this stage they are known as yellow eels. As they mature and grow they change into silver eels.

 

Eels that grow up in freshwater generally become females, while the ones in brackish water become males or females. Males change into silver eels when 6-12 years old (30-48 cm), the females when 10-30 years old (50-130 cm). As they mature sexually they descend the river or migrate to the sea. If silver eels are prevented from returning to the sea, they start to feed again and can live up to 50 years. It is thought that they use the earth’s magnetic field to find their way to the Sargasso Sea to spawn.

 

Stocks: There is one single European eel stock. This is severely depleted and at a historical minimum which continues to decline. Eels are exploited in all life stages and those that are fished do not have the chance to breed. Eels spawn only once in their lifetime and it is almost certain they die after spawning. Eels are also farmed but rely on juveniles from wild stocks.

 

EscolarEscolar

Notes: Escolar or snake mackerels, found in tropical and sub-tropical waters beyond the continental shelf. Escolar can grow up to 100cm.

 

Stocks: There is only a minor commercial fishery for escolar and they are generally taken as by-catch in long line fisheries for tuna. No information is available on their status.

 

FlounderFlounder

Notes: A widespread European fish found in both fresh and marine waters in the summer. Like plaice they spend most of the day buried in the sand, but become very active at night and move into shallower water to feed. Flounders attain a length of 50-60 cms and can live up to 15 years.

 

Stocks: There are no targeted fisheries for flounder; they are taken as by-catch in trawl nets. In Cornwall and North Western & North Wales Sea Fisheries Districts landing flounder below 25 cm is prohibited.

 

Gurnard (grey)Gurnard (grey)

Notes: Gurnards belong to a group of fish known collectively as Trigliadae (sea robins). Although an offshore species, grey gurnard is occasionally found in shallow water. The maximum life span rarely exceeds 6 years and they have a strong seasonal migration throughout the North Sea. Gurnards are able to grunt or growl by use of muscles associated with the swim bladder, and this is believed to aid in keeping schools together.

 

Stocks: Grey gurnard are taken as by-catch in trawl fisheries in deeper offshore waters. Thought to be sustainable.

 

HaddockHaddock

Notes: Haddock is a cold-temperate migratory fish, found in inshore shallow waters in summer and in deep water in winter. Smaller than cod, it can attain a length of 70-100cms and can live for more than 20 years.

 

Stocks: Haddock from stocks West of Scotland and in the combined areas of the North Sea, Kattegat & Skaggerak are at healthy or sustainable levels and being fished sustainably. Whilst at sustainable levels, fishing effort is too high on Icelandic and Faroese stocks. The haddock stock in the North East Arctic (Barents and Norwegian Sea) is also healthy.

 

Hake (European or Cape)Hake (European or Cape)

Notes: Cape hake belong to a group of fish known as Merluccidae. It is found on the continental shelf and in waters to depths over 1000m. There is only one species found in European seas.

 

Stocks: The Cape hake fishery was recently certified by the Marine Stewardship Council as an environmentally responsible fishery. There are two main stocks for European hake - a northern and southern stock. The northern stock is harvested sustainably, but the southern stock is depleted.

 

HalibutHalibut

Notes: Halibut belong to a large family (Pleuronectidae) of flatfishes which all have both eyes on the right side of the body. The family is distributed in cool, temperate waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The Atlantic halibut is the largest of the 3 species. Atlantic halibut mature at a higher age than either Greenland or Pacific halibut, and are therefore more vulnerable to overfishing.

 

Stocks: Pacific halibut is less vulnerable to overfishing than Atlantic or Greenland halibut and fisheries are generally much better managed. Longline fisheries for Pacific halibut in US waters off Alaska, Washington and Oregon are certified as environmentally responsible fisheries by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). The long line fishery for Pacific halibut in Pacific waters off British Columbia, Canada is currently undergoing assessment by the MSC as an environmentally responsible fishery.

 

HerringHerring

Notes: Herring belongs to the same family of fish (clupeids) as sprat and pilchard. At least one population in UK waters spawns in any one month of the year. Herring have an important role in the marine ecosystem as a transformer of plankton at the bottom of the food chain to higher feeding levels e.g. for cod, seabirds and marine mammals.

 

Stocks: The largest single fishery is for Atlantic herring which is fished throughout much of the North Atlantic. In European waters, herring is managed by a system of quotas. Stocks are healthy and sustainable.

 

Hoki Hoki

Notes: Hoki is a member of the hake family Merluccididae, and is a deep-water fish found only in the southern hemisphere. It can grow up to 120 cm and is reported to live to 25 years.

 

Stocks: Hoki trawling in New Zealand can cause by-catch of fur seals and a formal programme to monitor and control this is in force.

 

John DoryJohn Dory

Notes: John Dory usually lives a solitary life or is found in small schools in inshore waters. Spawns in June-August off the coasts of southern England, earlier in the Mediterranean.

 

Stocks: Dory is generally taken as by-catch in trawls and is unregulated.

 

MackerelMackerel

Notes: Mackerel is a fast swimming species belonging to a group of fish known as the scombrid family, which are related to the tuna.

 

Stocks: Sustainable

 

MarlinMarlin

Notes: Black marlin belong to a group of fish collectively known as billfish, all having a modified jaw shaped like a bill or spear. Black marlin is found in tropical and sub-tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They can reach a length of about 5m and weight of 750 kg. Spawning occurs at different times of year depending on the area. In Australian waters spawning occurs between October and March, whilst in the waters off China it occurs between May and June. Blue marlin is migratory and found throughout tropical and temperate waters worldwide. Migrations they are usually solitary, large predators with an average weight of 100-175 kgs. Young marlin is one of, if not the, fastest growing of all bony fish.

 

Stocks: Atlantic blue marlin is mainly landed as by-catch in long line fisheries for tuna and swordfish. Atlantic blue marlin is overfished. And is not predicted to recover if current levels of mortality continue.

 

MonkfishMonkfish

Notes: Also called Cape monk or Devil Anglerfish, it is distributed throughout the South East Atlantic. Found on the deeper continental shelf and upper slope from depths of about 150-400 m. attains a maximum length of 100 cm, more commonly 40-50 cm. It is reported to live for 11 years and matures at around 4 years at 40 cms.

 

Stocks: No information available at present.

 

Mullet (Grey)Mullet (Grey)

Notes: Grey mullet belong to a large family - which comprises some 80 species - of marine fish known as Muglidae and is a common inhabitant of marine coastal waters in Europe. The thick-lipped grey mullet is one of three species which occur in northern European waters. It spawns in the Channel and in Irish waters in July-August.

 

Stocks: Grey mullet is a common inhabitant of most if not all northern European coastal waters. Little information available on abundance due to lack of scientific data.

 

Mullet (Red) Mullet (Red)

Notes: Red mullet is a member of the Mullidae family. Distributed throughout the world in tropical and warm temperate seas, it is one of two species found in the Mediterranean (the other being Mullus barbatus). It is also found as far north as Britain and Ireland in summer. It has distinctive barbels - sensory organs - with which it detects food in the sea bed. This is the reason for its alternative name - goat fish. Spawns in May-July in the Channel area.

 

Stocks: Taken as by-catch and in mixed trawl fisheries. Red mullet subject to high fishing pressure in Mediterranean fisheries.

 

Pilchard (Sardine)Pilchard (Sardine)

Notes: Pilchard is a pelagic shoaling fish and a member of the herring family. It is widely distributed in European seas reaching the northward limit of its range in the vicinity of the British Isles. Young pilchard is often referred to as sardine.

 

Stocks: Choose pilchard - sold as Cornish sardines - caught in coastal waters off using traditional drift or ring nets.

 

PollackPollack

Notes: Distributed throughout the North East Atlantic, Pollack is a warm, temperate species belonging to the cod family.

 

Stocks: Pollack is taken as by-catch in directed trawl fisheries for cod and by hook and line. The best choice to make in terms of sustainability is line-caught Pollack.

 

PlaicePlaice

Notes: Plaice is a bottom-dwelling flatfish. North Sea plaice reach between 35 and 45 cm in their 6th year. It is a long-lived species with a maximum reported age of 50 years.

 

Stocks: Plaice is subject to high fishing pressure. Stocks in the Celtic Sea, Western Channel, SW Ireland and West of Ireland are in decline and substantial reductions in fishing effort are required to achieve sustainable stock levels. The Irish Sea stock is currently the only stock classified as healthy and harvested sustainably.

 

SalmonSalmon

Notes: Both Atlantic and Pacific salmon are diadromous, i.e. they move during their life cycle between fresh and marine waters. Salmon spawn in rivers in fresh water. Eggs are laid in nests called redds. Pacific salmon, which are shorter lived and much more prolific breeders than Atlantic salmon, always die after spawning. Atlantic salmon may survive to spawn a 2nd or 3rd time.

 

Stocks: Pacific salmon are a shorter lived species and much more prolific breeders than Atlantic salmon. Stocks of wild Atlantic salmon are overfished and are listed as a threatened and declining species. Atlantic salmon is widely farmed. There are a number of environmental issues related to fish farming. All 5 species of Pacific salmon caught in Alaskan waters are from fisheries certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as environmentally responsible fisheries. Choose wild caught Pacific salmon from MSC certified fisheries or farmed Atlantic salmon which has been certified by the Soil Association as organic, and/or by the RSPCA/SSPCA Freedom Foods scheme ensuring that high environmental and welfare standards have been met.

 

Sole (Dover)Skate

Notes: Common skates belong to the Rajidae family which includes skates and rays. Females can reach lengths of about 280 cm and males about 200 cm. The species can live for 50 years.

 

Stocks: The common skate belies its name as it is becoming very rare in UK shallow seas and in European waters. Common skate is assessed as Critically Endangered by IUCN -World Conservation Union.

 

Sole (Lemon)Snapper (Red)

Notes: The red snapper is a tropical species distributed across the Indian and Pacific oceans from the Gulf of Oman to south-east Asia. 

 

Stocks: The red snapper caught off the north Western Australian coast is a fast growing species whose stock levels are currently healthy. Research is continuing to improve the management of the trawl fishery.

 

SoSwordfishSole (Dover)

Notes: Sole is a right-eyed flatfish (eyes on the right hand side of the body) and belongs to the family of flatfishes known as Soleidae. It spawns in spring and early summer in shallow coastal water: from April to June in the southern North Sea; from May-June off the coast of Ireland and southern England; and as early as February in the Mediterranean.

 

Stocks: North Sea Dover or common sole stock is classified as healthy and harvested sustainably. Stocks in areas Skaggerak and Kattegat, Eastern Channel and Celtic Sea are also healthy but level of fishing pressure is too high or unknown. Stocks in the Western Channel and Biscay are harvested unsustainably. Dover sole from the Hastings Fleet trammel net fishery in the Eastern Channel is certified as an environmentally responsible fishery by the Marine Stewardship Council.

 

TilapiaSole (Lemon)

Notes: Lemon sole is a widely distributed flatfish in northern European waters.

 

Stocks: The fishery for lemon sole is largely unregulated. Taken as by-catch in trawl fisheries. Only stocks in Norwegian and North Seas are subject to mixed quota restrictions. Choose fish landed in Cornwall where a minimum landing size is enforced. 

 

TunaSwordfish

Notes: Swordfish is the only member of the family Xiphiidae. It is a migratory species, moving towards cold waters in summer to feed and returning to warmer waters to spawn. In the Atlantic spawning takes place in spring in the southern Sargasso Sea, in spring and summer in the Pacific and June-August in the Mediterranean. They can attain a maximum size of 4.5m and a weight of 650 kg. Most swordfish over 140 kg are female.

 

Stocks: Swordfish has low resilience to high fishing pressure. Many stocks are unmanaged and/or overfished and/or include large catches of immature swordfish and by-catch of non-target species including endangered marine turtles.

 

TurbotTilapia

Notes: Tilapia is a generic name used to describe groups of fish called cichlids that are native to Africa. Tilapia is hardy, freshwater fish that tolerate a wide range of water conditions. They inhabit warm ponds, lakes and streams, and reproduce in fresh and brackish water.

 

Stocks: Tilapia can be farmed in a number of ways, which varies according to country and size of production.

 

WhitingTuna

Notes: Found in the Pacific, South Atlantic, East Atlantic and Indian Oceans, tuna belong to the family Scombridae. They are large, oceanic fish and are migratory, some making trans-oceanic journeys. Tuna form mixed schools e.g. albacore, skipjack and bluefin. can reach ages of 10-25 years depending on species.

 

Stocks: Albacore Skipjack and yellowfin from the Pacific and Atlantic and skipjack from the Indian oceans are currently being fished at sustainable levels.

 

Turbot

Notes: Turbot belongs to a small family of left-eyed flatfish (both eyes on the left of the body), known collectively as the family Scophthalmidae. This family of fish is confined to the North Atlantic basin. For some reason males are generally more abundant than females. Turbot can attain a length of 1m and a weight of 25 kg. Females are larger than males at any given age.

 

Stocks: North Sea stocks are over-exploited. Throughout Cornwall Sea Fisheries District it is prohibited to land turbot below 30cms.

 

Whiting

Notes: Whiting is a member of the gadoid family the same as cod and haddock.

 

Stocks: Whiting are a low value species and often discarded in large quantities. The English Channel stock is currently the only stock assessed by ICES as having full reproductive capacity or healthy.

 

For More Information On Our Fresh Fish, Fruit & Vegetables

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